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What is Provenance?

Every work of art carries with it not only the history of its creator, but of its owners as well. Provenance—the record of ownership for a work of art—provides important documentation explaining who, at various points in history, owned the painting, sculpture or artifact at hand. This is an especially important issue for museums, who pay careful attention to provenance to confirm the authenticity of a work of art and its rightful ownership.

Provenance can be difficult to determine. The information presented here is intended to be a teaching tool for those interested in provenance research, specifically how to read it and what to look out for in terms of periods and areas of added scrutiny. Beyond introducing readers to the subject, the page also aims to be the new home for information about the Toledo Museum of Art’s recently acquired works of art, especially those that require additional provenance research. The Museum welcomes any information from the public that may help close gaps or provide further information into the history of an object’s ownership.

The Museum has been proactive in resolving ownership claims, as outlined in the Repatriation section below, and is currently researching other objects. Information on all of these cases is provided here and will be updated with new developments. Public input and additional information are welcome.

The Toledo Museum of Art’s investigations are ongoing and include new acquisitions. If you have any questions or information about the works in the Toledo Museum of Art’s collection, please feel free to contact us at:

The Toledo Museum of Art
Box 1013
Toledo, Ohio 43697

More About Provenance

Recording an object’s provenance can be done in different ways, but the Toledo Museum of Art, along with many other institutions and collectors, follows the standard format put forth by the American Association of Museums.

Here’s an example of how a work of art is credited:

Peter Paul Rubens
The Crowning of Saint Catherine, 1631
Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey

Here is an example of that work of art’s provenance record:

Church of the Augustinians, Malines, 1633-1765;
Gabriel-Francois-Joseph de Verhulst, Brussels, 1765 (deNeck, Brussels, Aug. 16, 1779, lot 43);
Dukes of Rutland, Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, 1779-1911;
(Francis Kleinberger, Paris, 1911-1912);
Leopold Koppel, Berlin, 1912-1933;
Albert Koppel, Berlin, 1933-1950.
Acquired from the above, through the Rosenberg & Stiebel Gallery, New York, 1950

From The AAM Guide to Provenance Research:

The provenance is listed in chronological order, beginning with the earliest known owner. Life dates of owners, if known, are enclosed in brackets. Uncertain information is indicated by the terms “possibly” or “probably” and explained in footnotes. Dealers, auction houses, or agents are enclosed in parentheses to distinguish them from private owners. Relationships between owners and methods of transactions are indicated in the text and clarified through punctuation: a semicolon is used to indicate that the work passed directly between two owners (including dealers, auction houses, or agents), and a period is used to separate two owners (including dealers auction houses or agents) if a direct transfer did not occur or is not known to have occurred. Footnotes are used to document or clarify information.

O’Hara Glass Co., Ltd. (American, 1797-1891), World Butter (Covered Butter Dish), 1885-1888, colorless non-lead glass, pressed, 9 ½ in. X 8 in, 2016.207.

Clyde R. Englehardt, Toledo, OH, 1980s-2016.

Asher Brown Durand (American, 1796-1886), Rocks and Trees, Forest Hillside, 188[5?], oil on paper, mounted on canvas, 26 ¾ x 39 ¾ in, 2016.212.

Collection William Hurly (1862 – 1954);
Kennedy Gallery, NYC;
William and Marjorie Hutton, Toledo, 1959;
by inheritance to William Hutton, Ruth K. Hutton, Mary C. Hutton, and Eleanor A. Hutton.

Netsuke: Sail Ship, 20th century, polychrome ceramic, signed, 2016.224.

Richard Silverman, (purchased via online auction) 2015-2016.

Netsuke: Monkey Head, late 19th– early 20th century, corozo (palm) nut, signed ‘Yasuhito’, 2016.225.

(Mr. Ito, Tokyo, Japan, n.d.- 1991);
Richard Silverman, May 1991-2016.

Netsuke: Karasu Tengu Head, 19th-20th century, corozo nut, signed ‘Tanshin’, 2016.226.

Richard Silverman, bought in Japan, n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Fugu (Blowfish), late 19th century, corozo nut, 2016.227.

Richard Silverman (purchased in Kyoto, Japan from Mr. Nawate), October 1980-2016.

Netsuke: Ryusa (Flowers), late 19th century, ivory with inlaid metals and mother of pearl, 2016.228.

(Auction, I.M. Chait, Beverly Hills, n.d.);
Richard Silverman, n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Uji Tea Picker, early-mid 19th century, colored wood of tea bush, signed ‘Shofu’, 2016.229.

Julie Cohn (Japan and then relocated to Los Angeles, CA), n.d.-2001;
Richard Silverman (purchased from the above through her Gallery), 2001-2016.

Netsuke: Tsuba, late 19th-early 20th century, black lacquer and mother of pearl, 2016.230.

Richard Silverman, n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Oshidori (Mandarin Duck), late 19th century, ivory, 2016.231.

Richard Silverman, (purchased in last ten years from Mr. Ito, Japan) n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Seated Monkey Picking Flea, 19th century, stained dark wood, signed ‘Koichi’, 2016.232.

Richard Silverman, n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Shi-Shi on Seal Base, mid-19th century, ivory, 2016.233.

Richard Silverman, (purchased at auction, Beverly Hills, n.d.) n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Seated Kirin, early 20th century, bone, 2016.234.

Richard Silverman, (purchased at auction in Eldridge, n.d.) n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Two Geisha and Lord in Yakatebune (Party Boat), late 19th century, ivory, signed ‘Ikkosai’ and ‘Kakihan’, 2016.235.

(Osama Kunishi, Los Angeles, CA, around 1997);
Richard Silverman, 1997-2016.

Netsuke: Acrobat, 19th century, ivory, 2016.236.

(Auction in Japan, more than ten years prior to 2016);
Richard Silverman, n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Two Shi-Shi on a Seal, early 19th century, ivory, 2016.237.

Norman Sanfield, n.d.;
Richard Silverman, (purchased from the above) n.d.-2016.

Netsuke: Monkey Trapping Octopus under a Shell, 20th century, ivory, signed ‘Shoko’, 2016.238.

(Auction, I.M. Chait, Beverly Hills, n.d.);
Richard Silverman, n.d.-2016.

Rene Lalique (French, 1860-1945), Vase with Fern Leaves Forming handles (Feuilles de Fougères Formant Anses),c. 1920, mold-blown glass, 14 in. (35.5 cm), Gift of John W. Eichleay, Jr. Pittsburgh PA2014.40.

European private collection;
Shaï Bandmann;
Shaï Bandmann and David Weinstein, Tel Aviv, (until business relationship dissolved);
David Weinstein, New York, until 1998;
John Eichleay Jr., 1998-2014

Aristide Maillol (French, 1861, 1944), Woman Kneeling on Her Left Knee, Elbow on Her Right Knee, 1927, etching, 8 ¼ x 10 ¾ in. (21 x 27.3 cm), Gift of Kleia and Kurt Luckner Family, 2014.46.

Mr. and Mrs. Antony Raubitschek, Palo Alto, California, 1941 -1999;
Kurt and Kleia Luckner, 1999 – 2015

Antoine Berjon (French, 1754-1843), Still Life with Grapes, Chestnuts, Melons, and a Marble Cube, c. 1800, oil on canvas, 12 15/16 x 16 5/6 in. (32.8 x 41.4 cm), Purchased with funds given by Dr. and Mrs. James G. Ravin, 2015.4.

The artist, until his death in 1843;
Nicos Dhikeos, until 1987, Lyon and Cyprus;
By descent within Dhikeos family;
(Michel Descours Galerie, Lyon, 2014)

Alfred Stieglitz (American, 1864-1946), Camera Work, 1903-1917, photogravure, photo-mechanical reproduction, and letterpress, Gift of The Georgia Welles Apollo Society, 2015.12 A-XX

Unknown East Coast rare book dealer;
Sidney Feldman, Bloomfield Hills, MI, 1965-?;
(Halsted Gallery);
Jed MacKay, Portland, OR, ?-2015;
(Halsted Gallery)

Charles-François Daubigny (French, 1817-1878), Auvers, Landscape with Plough, 1872-1877, oil on canvas,  18 5/16 x 32 1/16 in. (46.5 x 81.5 cm), Purchased with funds from the Florence Scott Libbey Bequest in Memory of her Father, Maurice A. Scott, 2015.18.

(C.-F. Daubigny, Paris, Hotel Drouot, 6-8 May 1878);
Jean Baptiste Pradel, Paris;
By descent within the family until consigned to auction by Docteur Pin of Grenoble, grand-nephew of Jean Baptiste Pradel;
(Sadde-Dijon, Dijon, 6 April 2014, lot nr. 98);
Acquired at auction by Galerie Nissl, Eschen, Liechtenstein;
Acquired from Galerie Nissl by Galerie Sanct Lucas, Vienna, April 2014-2015

Brian Williams (American, born 1950), Thatch and Tile, 1983, etching and aquatint, 9 x 9 in. (22.9 x 22.9 cm), Gift of Norman L. Sandfield, 2015.29.

Norman Tolman Collection, until 1968?;
Norman Sandfield, ?-2015

Koichi Sakamoto (Japanese, born 1932), White Horse with Crow, etching with mezzotint, 15 x 11 in. (38.1 x 27.9 cm), Gift of Norman L. Sandfield, 2015.30.

Norman Sandfield, ?-2015

Jun’ichiro (Japanese, 1914-1988), Kiyomizu Temple in Kyoto, woodblock print, 16 ¾ x 21 5/8 in. (42.5 x 54.9 cm), Gift of Norman L. Sandfield, 2015.31.

Gallery in the Ginza area, Japan, 1968;
Norman Sandfield, 1968-2015

Kiyoshi Saito (Japanese, 1907-1997), Maiko Kyoto, 1960, woodblock print, 16 ¾ x 21 5/8 in. (42.5 x 54.9 cm), Gift of Norman L. Sandfield, 2015.32.

Gallery in the Ginza area, Japan, ?-1968;
Norman Sandfield, 1968-2015

Paul Cadmus (American, 1904-1999), Youth with Kite, 1941, etching; glazed, matted, and framed, 10 ¼ x 5 ½ in., Bequest of Albert Case Kelley and Allison Uhl Kelley, 2015.45.

Estate of Allison Uhl Kelley

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841-1919), Le chapeau epingle, 1 planche, 1897, lithograph, 25 5/8 x 19 3/8 in., Gift of Marjorie M. Hutton in memory of Lillian C. Mattimoe, 2015.48.

(Visiting Dealer, Toledo Museum of Art, 1950s);
Mr. Thomas J. Mattimoe [Ohio, d. 1989], 1950s-1989;
Mrs. Marjorie Hutton [daughter of the above, by inheritance], 1989-2015;

Mermod Jaccard and Company (1860-1920), Punch Bowl Ladle, 1904, sterling silver, raised, cast, and chased, Purchased with funds given by Mr. and Mrs. George L. and Leslie A. Chapman, 2015.49.

Alonzo Morris since about 1945;
by descent Lonny Riddle (grandson d. Aug. 2015), Ajijic, Jalisco, Mexico;
by descent Cindy Lou Paul (wife of above), Ajijic, Jalisco, Mexico, 2015.

Torres Strait Islanders, Mask, late 19th century, wood, human hair, shell, seedpod, fiber, pigment, melo shell and coix seeds, 28 3/8 in. (72 cm), Gift of C. O. Miniger and Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey, by exchange, 2015.55.

Collected by Samuel MacFarlane, London Missionary Society, circa 1870s
Edward Gerrard, London [handwritten paper label on interior ‘Gerrard 1887. Sud (?) New Guinea’]
Staatlichen Museum fur Volkerkunde, Dresden, catalogue number 6397, acquired from the above 3.12.1886 [ collector notes: Broad wooden mask made at Saibai]
Everett Rassiga (1922-2003), acquired from the above through exchange, 1974
Walter Randel, New York
Marcia and John Friede, New York, acquired from the above
Jolika Collection, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, de Young Museum, Gift of Marcia and John Friede, inv. no. 2001.62.8

John (American, 1777-1851) and Hugh (American, 1781-1830) FinlayCard Tables in the Neo-Classical Taste, c. 1825, Mahogany, maple, pine, and poplar, painted and paint-grained rosewood, and gilded, with gilt-brass toe caps and castors and die-stamped rosettes, and red velvet in the wells, 28 7/8 x 35 7/8 x 17 ¾ in. (73.34 x 91.12 x 45.09 cm), Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Barber Art Fund, 2016.3-.4.

[Ronald De Silva, Garrison, New York];
Andy Warhol, New York, until 1987;
to sale 6000, Sotheby’s, New York, The Andy Warhol Collection: Americana and European and American Paintings, Drawings, and Prints, September 30, 1988, no. 3215, illus. in color one of the pair;
To private collection, New York, until 2016.

Spanish,  Pendant Cross, c. 1620-1630,composed of 13 square-cut Colombian emeralds (1 replaced), set in gold and surrounded by natural pearls, 9 x 4.5 cm, Purchased with funds given by Stephen D. Taylor Family Foundation, 2016.5.

Fern Kao, Bowling Green, OH  (by 1990);
(Lakeside Antique Show, Ohio, August 2015);
Steve Taylor.

Theophil Hansen (Austrian, 1813-1891), Side Chair, c. 1870, walnut and beech wood frame with replacement 19th-century horse hair fabric upholstery, 35 x 18 x 19 in. (88.9 x 45.7 x 48.2 cm), Purchased with the Johnson Family Furniture Fund, 2016.12.

By repute from Ludwig Lobmeyr, Vienna;
Purchased by French dealer from the private collection of an English collector;
Burzio sen., in late 1990s (from dealer in Paris);
Luca Burzio, Turin, dealer;
(Sotheby’s, London, Sale L14305, 28 October, 2014, lot 207, unsold);
(Luca Burzio, Masterpiece Antiques Fair, London);
Martin P. Levy of H. Blairman & Sons, Ltd., London, since June 2015.

Laurits Andersen Ring (Danish, 1854-1933), Rooks in a Field, 1891, oil on canvas, 22 x 29.9 in. (56 x 76 cm), Purchased with funds from the Florence Scott Libbey Bequest in Memory of her Father, Maurice A. Scott, 2016.13

(Charlottenborg, “The L.A.Ring auction”, Copenhagen, 1893, nr. 29);
Printer A. Thiele (1893);
Art dealer Chr. Larsen (1910);
Merchant S. Engel   (1924);
Private collection, Denmark;
(Bruun Rasmussen, Copenhagen (Auction 853), 25 November 2014, lot number 68).
Private collection, United Kingdom.

Ancient Roman, Matron of the Flavian Period, late 1st– early 2nd century CE, marble, Gift of the Georgia Welles Apollo Society, 2016.19

Ex.- Von Boschan-Aschrott collection, Vienna, 19th century;
thence by descent through the family, England, until 2001;
(Sotheby’s, New York, June 12, 2001, lot 53);
(Phoenix Ancient Art S.A., Switzerland, 2001);
European private collection, 2008;
Phoenix Ancient Art, 2015.

Kunstwerkstätten Karl Seyfang (KaSeGö) (German, 1918-1928), Beaded Purse, c. 1920-1928, rectangular evening purse knitted of silk yarn with imported glass seed beads; silvered alpaca (German silver) handle; pale purple silk lining, 12 x 8 ½ in., Gift of Judith Jerozal Erickson in memory of her parents and grandparents, 2016.69

Helen Catherine Jerozal, née Muth, Oak Lawn, IL (1917-1997), ?-1965;
Judith M. Erickson (gift from the above, her mother; maternal great-grandparents were first generation German immigrants), Phoenix AZ, 1965-2016.

Ancient Roman, Season Sarcophagus, c. 280-290 CE, marble, 24 ½ x 84 ½ x 28 in., Purchased with funds given by Dorothy Mackenzie Price, 2016.70

Marchese Ugo della Stufa, Signa, near Florence, prior to 1743;
Colpi Collection, Rome;
Barsanti, Rome;
(Joseph Brummer Gallery, New York, 1938);
Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY, 1938-2007 (deaccessioned in 2007);
(Ariadne Galleries, Purchased at Sotheby’s, 7 June 2007, Egyptian, Classical, and Western Asiatic Antiquities, Including Property of the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Lot 75).

Hendrick Goltzius (Dutch, 1558-1617), The Engraver Theodorus Dirck Volckertz. Coornhert, c. 1591-1592, engraving on laid paper, 2016.71

Maxwell Macdonald family;
(Christie’s London, Old Master Prints, 9 December 2015, lot 52.);
Eric Gillis Fine Art, Brussels, 2015-2016.

New England Glass Works (American, 1818-1888), Agata Morgan Vase, 1887-1889, blown and molded glass, 8 in., 2016.213.

Stuart Feld, Hirschl & Adler, New York, n.d.-2016.

New England Glass Works (American, 1818-1888), Black-Amethyst Sinumbra Lamp, 1830-1835, Translucent dark amethyst glass appearing black, pressed, with patinated copper alloy (brass) fittings and iron alloy lamp mechanism, a blown transparent colorless glass shade, ground and wheel-cut, and a transparent blown glass chimney (replaced), 17 1/2 in., 2016.214.

Stuart Feld, Hirschl & Adler, New York, n.d.-2016.

Fritz Lampl (Austrian, 1892-1955), Bimini-Werkstatt für Kunstgewerbe (Austrian, 1923-1938), Pair of Cocktail Glasses, about 1923-1938, flame-worked and tooled colorless and multi-colored glass, 2016.215A-B.

Mary and Willard Webb Jr., purchased in Austria, n.d.;
Thomas I. Webb, Jr., until 2015;
Polly Webb, 2015-2016.

French, Set of six verre de fougère wine glasses, 18th century, Glass, blown, pattern molded, tooled, 5 5/16 in. to 5 5/8 in., 2016.243A-F.

Chateau near Argentan, Normandy, 18th century-1977;
Sylvie L’Hermite-King (owner of Galerie A La Façon de Venise in Paris), acquired them in a sale of the contents of the Chateau, 1977-2016.

James Ensor (Belgian, 1860-1949), The Cathedral, 1886, etching, 18 7/8 x 13 7/8 in., 2017.4.

(Galerie Kornfeld, Berlin, June 17, 2010, Kunst des 19. Und 20. Jahrhunderts, Teil II, Sale no. 250, no. 311);
Harris Schrank Fine Prints, New York, 2010-2016.

Acoma Pueblo, Embroidered Manta, c. 1850, lac- dyed raveled yarns, indigo and natural brown/ black handspun yarns, 44 x 49 ½ in., Gift of The Georgia Welles Apollo Society, 2017.13.

Private Collection, 2014-2015;
(Shiprock Gallery, Santa Fe, NM, 2015-2017).

Santo Domingo Pueblo, Polychrome Pottery Jar, c. 1865-1875, native clay, pigment, 19 x 16 in., Gift of The Georgia Welles Apollo Society, 2017.16.

H. Malcolm Grimmer, Santa Fe, NM, c. 1984.
Ray Harvey, Paradise Valley, AZ, 2005.
John C. Hill, Scottsdale, AZ, 2016.
(Morning Star Gallery, Santa Fe, NM, 2016).

Cheyenne, Model Tipi Cover, c. 1860, hide, paint, and sinew, 57 x 31 ½ in., Gift of The Georgia Welles Apollo Society, 2017.17.

Private collection of Mr. BC Dentan, New York, n.d.-2015;
(Donald Ellis Gallery, New York, 2015-2017).

Crow, Northern Plains, Ledger Drawing #3, 1890, watercolor, graphite, and colored pencil on paper, 9 7/8 x 8 in., Purchased with funds from The Joseph and Kathleen Magliochetti Fund, 2017.35.

Cliff and Barbara Harmon, Taos, NM, n.d.-1991;
(Morning Star Gallery, Santa Fe, NM, 1991-n.d.);
Dennis Adams collection, Pennsylvania, 1990s;
(Donald Ellis Gallery, New York, 2017).

Crow, Northern Plains, Ledger Drawing #5, 1890, watercolor, graphite, and colored pencil on paper, 9 7/8 x 8 in., Purchased with funds from The Joseph and Kathleen Magliochetti Fund, 2017.36.

Cliff and Barbara Harmon, Taos, NM, n.d.-1991;
(Morning Star Gallery, Santa Fe, NM, 1991-n.d.);
Dennis Adams collection, Pennsylvania, 1990s;
(Donald Ellis Gallery, New York, 2017).

Giuseppe Recco (Italian, 1634-1695), Kitchen Interior with a Piglet, about 1660, oil on canvas, 29 x 40 in., Purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, Gift of Edward Drummond Libbey, 2017.37.

(Lievry & Viel, Rouen [?] (as Spanish late 17th century), auction, March 1973);
(Trafalgar Galleries, London, 1973-2017).

“Deaccessioning” is defined as the process by which an artwork (or other object) is permanently removed from a museum’s collection. Proceeds received from the sale of deaccessioned artworks must be used by art museums for the acquisition of other artworks. As such, U.S. and international professional organizations have long upheld the role of deaccessioning as vital to the care of collections. Some nationally funded museums do not allow deaccessioning under any circumstances, and internationally it is not as prevalent as it is in America, where many museums are privately funded. The Toledo Museum of Art respects that there are different points of view, but American art museums have upheld the practice of judiciously managing collections.

Following these professional museum standards, TMA periodically reviews its holdings and occasionally deaccessions a select few works of art, based on what will enhance the entire Museum collection. The funds realized from deaccessioning are used solely to improve TMA’s collection through the purchase of new art, in compliance with the Association of Art Museum Directors (AAMD) Professional Practices in Art Museums (see here), the American Alliance of Museums (AAM) Code of Ethics (see the most recent update to AAM’s guidelines here) and the International Council of Museums (ICOM) Code of Ethics (see here).

From Oct. 19 to Oct. 26, 2017, the Toledo Museum of Art (TMA) is deaccessioning 68 objects from its antiquities collection through Christie’s auction house in New York. All information about these objects can be found online at Christie’s website. In response to inquiries concerning this sale, it is important to underscore TMA’s collecting philosophy as well as the Museum’s commitment to ensuring clear provenance of all of the objects in its collection.

Founded in 1901, the Toledo Museum of Art holds a collection of extraordinary artworks. We are a free museum that had nearly half-a-million visitors last year and is nationally renowned for its focus on art education. Even with those distinctions, the Museum is most notable for the quality of its collection. Aside from its comprehensive collection of glass—Toledo is known in America as the Glass City—TMA has never sought to be comprehensive in its approach to collecting—the institution’s focus has been and remains on singular artworks by singular artists. Quality has always been the outstanding attribute of our collection, and the objects being sold are not of the quality of our permanent display collection; have been on display rarely; have not been sought out by scholars; or have not been published in recent decades. In short, these objects were not working to fulfill our mission.

We take the stewardship and integrity of our collection seriously, from acquisition to deaccession, and maintain transparency about all of our professional practices. Preserving the world’s cultural heritage is of the utmost importance to collecting institutions. To that end, we publicly share our Collections Management Policy (see here) as well as our commitment to ensuring clear provenance. The donors of the deaccessioned objects or their heirs have been contacted, and none have objected to the sales. And indeed, any future acquisitions made with the funds earned through deaccessioning will acknowledge the original donor in the credit line.

The guidelines of AAMD state that: “Deaccessioning is a legitimate part of the formation and care of collections and, if practiced, should be done in order to refine and improve the quality and appropriateness of the collection, the better to serve the museum’s mission.” The American Alliance of Museums is even more explicit: “For this [use of institutional resources] and other reasons (e.g., when items are considered redundant, are damaged beyond repair or are of poor quality), deaccessioning is both a logical and responsible collections management policy.” We uphold these professional standards and do so in the service of creating an ever-better museum experience for our public and scholars alike.